Ap editor david minthorn fields questions of widest interest posed by subscribers to the online ap stylebook. What follows are summaries of some of the most common style rules. An exception can and should be made when the lack of a comma would. In ap style, omit the comma before the last item in a simple series, such as joe, john and steve. Ap style thats the associated press stylebook, which many journalists live by does not use an oxford comma. Most authorities, including the associated press stylebook and the chicago manual of style, recommend a comma after the first digit of a fourdigit. Sep 16, 2015 i love musicals, including phantom of the opera, elisabeth, and dracula, which have dark, sweeping scores. According to ap style you do not use a comma before inc.
Oxford style requires the use of the comma to avoid confusion, hence the name oxford comma. The ap stylebook has a few simple rules for using quotation marks in ap style stories. The menu offered a choice of bacon and eggs, pancakes, or waffles. The venerable style guide you know and love, the ap stylebook, is having a big birthday. The chicago manual of style gives the same advice on both fronts. Its not about looking more professional or what seems to be correct. The ap therefore strives to keep its writing style easy to read, concise and free of bias. Spiralbound book, updated each spring 2019 ap stylebook. You must register and have a current subscription to access ap stylebook online register now. Formal titles in ap style should be capitalized when they immediately precede one or more names. Theres no single rule that applies to all situations. The associated press style is the goto style for journalism and news writing. It is the indispensable reference for writers, editors, proofreaders, indexers, copywriters, designers, and publishers, informing the editorial canon with sound, definitive advice. Register to view your products, order status, shipment trackings and manage your account settings.
A majority of american style guides mandate its use, including the chicago manual of style, strunk and whites classic the elements of style, and the u. The following chart shows some of the major differences in punctuation style between the associated press stylebook 2018 edition and the chicago manual of style 17th edition. That being said, writing were leaving on the 23rd of august would not be incorrect. The obama administration told public schools to grant bathroom access even if a students gender identity isnt whats in their record. They call for commas to be placed before or after certain types of clauses, phrases, or other constructions. I believe this is because ap style focuses more on brevity. Do not use the oxford comma no final comma before the last in a series. In legal or biblical citations, you should use a colon to break up chapters, sections or verses. Should you use a comma before and in a list of words. President barack obama, presidentelect donald trump. It is also required by the chicago manual of style and mla style.
When you walk straight down the hall, you will be met with two doors. When do you use a comma before including or such as. The 2019 edition of the associated press stylebook and briefing on media law includes more than 200 new or revised entries, with chapters covering data journalism, business, fashion, food, religion and sports terms, as well as media law, news values, punctuation, social media, polls and surveys and a new. Ap style suggests avoiding parentheses when possible, and instead rewriting text or using dashes or commas to set off the information. Add websters new world college dictionary for a more comprehensive resource. Where did the oxford comma come from, and why is it so. Ap style also aims to avoid stereotypes and unintentionally offensive language. As the ap stylebook editors said, if a comma is needed for clarity, use it. The chicago manual of style online is the venerable, timetested guide to style, usage, and grammar in an accessible online format. Use commas to separate elements in a series, but do not put a comma before and or another conjunction in a simple series.
We agree with ap and recommend not overusing prepositions. In english language punctuation, a serial comma, or series comma also called an oxford comma or harvard comma, is a comma placed immediately before the coordinating conjunction usually and or or in a series of three or more terms. Because is a subordinating conjunction, which means that it connects a subordinate clause to an independent clause. While the oxford comma obviously serves an important purpose, many journalistic publications rigidly follow ap style and do not allow their writers to make use of it.
The ap style as its known in the trade is quite different from the new york times style or chicago manual of style. Dont use a comma before a conjunction in a simple series. In these cases, the quotations are used to support the primary meaning of the sentence. Aug 01, 2018 the associated press stylebook and briefing on media law official style guide of the associated press, a notforprofit news agency thats been around since 1846. The serial comma is used much more often, usually routinely, in the united states. Jan 17, 2015 for example, the associated press says not to use a comma before designations such as jr. However, it would become ambiguous if i removed the comma fromt the following. Switch a, which was on a panel, controlled the recording device. There are quite a few rules in the ap stylebook for state names and ap style state abbreviations. The best ap style cheat sheet every writer needs free download. What they are and how to use them site title english grammar and use are the ap associated press and chicago manuals. Indiana daily student stylebook addendum for spring 2019. If youre new to news writing or switching from one to another, youll want to keep this ap cheat sheet handy and. Commas can be tricky, but they dont have to trip you up.
In a simple series like that, according to ap style, do not place a comma before the and or or unless the items have several words. This can force journalists to phrase ideas differently than they would wish to avoid violating the guide. Capitalize principal before a name, as well as vice principal or assistant principal, if its a formal title. Some students make silly excuses, such as my dog ate my homework. For appositives and parenthetical phrases, the comma use is part of basic english punctuation, universal and not limited to a stylebook. Use commas to separate elements in a series, but do not put a comma before the conjunction in a simple series. That final comma before the and in a list is called an oxford comma, or serial comma.
Journalists adhere to style guidelines when writing articles. This searchable, customizable, regularly updated version of ap stylebook offers bonus features including ask the editor, topical guides and pronunciation guide. For instance, ap would use the serial comma in this sentence. How to include ap style company names in your writing. Oct 03, 2019 six main differences between ap and chicago style. The chicago manual of style the associated press stylebook. The ap stylebook, whose punctuationpitch leans generally to the side of the fewer commas the better, is pro comma when it comes to i. However, in reference to an llc that is in existence, the official company name as it is registered with or without the comma is what should be used. The ap stylebook does not mince its words when ruling on the importance of punctuation. Use a comma before which when it introduces a nonrestrictive phrase. Incorrect punctuation can change the meaning of a sentence, the results of which could be farreaching. The associated press stylebook, first published in 1977, clarified the news organizations rules on grammar, spelling, punctuation and usage. If the parenthetical is a complete, independent sentence, place the period inside the parentheses.
How to format phone numbers in ap style pen and the pad. The main points of the blog post are to introduce ap style, teach bloggers and content marketers the basic rules, and help. She smiled, youll want to read this gatehouse newsroom post about how to properly use quotation marks in ap style stories then. There are several uses of the comma that can best be described as conventional or mechanical. Now in its sixth edition, the stylebook is the standard style. The ap stylebook says that the oxford comma is no bueno, meaning that if youre listing more than two things, you should remove the final comma before and. Their stylebook guides the writing of many other news organizations throughout the untied states. While it often may seem that ap stylebook guidelines can be difficult to learn, ap style company names are quite simple if you keep a few things in mind. Writing center quick reference associate press style guide. If you write for a newspaper, magazine, or the web equivalentyou might work from the associated press stylebook ap, which says to leave off the comma unless that would make the sentence ambiguous.
The new policy applies to everyone, including faculty. The ap stylebook, most often used for newspapers and other media, does recommend the comma be omitted before the and. The style also allows writers to pair they with everyone in. However, if the comma is necessary for clarity or if an integral part of the series includes a conjunction, it should be added. Apr 22, 2020 in ap style, colons are also used to separate the elements in several listings. The proper place for the comma is before the conjunction.
The 2019 edition of the associated press stylebook and briefing on media law includes more than 200 new or revised entries, with chapters covering data journalism, business, fashion, food, religion and sports terms, as well as media law, news values, punctuation, social media, polls and surveys and a new chapter on health and science. A communicators guide to ap style ragan communications. For instance, in the below sentence, the oxford comma is placed before and. Here is a sampling of frequently asked questions, with examples of ap style used in answers. The school offers courses titled arts and entertainment. Chicago, being twice as long as ap, has twice as much to say on this subject and offers several more variations of proper serialcomma usage on which the ap is mum 6. Here are two examples of how ap might treat the need for a comma before and from the blog ap vs chicago. The ap stylebook for journalistic writing advises against it. Use a comma for series that include elements containing and or or. As mentioned above, this is the comma that appears before a conjunction such as and or or in a series. You should place a colon between the units of time when indicating an amount of time that has elapsed or a time of day. Dont use a comma before which when its part of a prepositional phrase, such as in which.
When you are explaining a particular word or phrase by using quotations around it, or identifying the name of a book, song or movie, you will not necessarily need to use a comma before the item. However, in a complex series of phrases, a comma may be needed. The ap stylebook now allows writers to use they as a singular pronoun when rewriting the sentence as plural would be overly awkward or clumsy. Ap style is to not include a comma before the conjunction in a simple series like the flag is red, white and blue. There is a comprehensive punctuation guide in the ap stylebook.
The use or omission of the comma is well established, and writers need only to apply the rules. If a states name is standing alone or in conjunction with a city or town in your text, spell out the entire states name. Now we can examine why the stylebook rules cannot, in general, be right. However, chicago style or the chicago manual of style, which is commonly used by book publishers, academics and trade publications does require an oxford comma. Use a comma before including and such as when followed by a nonrestrictive, nonessential phrase or clause. Just like a tuxedo, theres a time and a place for it. The associated press is a newsgathering organization. Its turning 60, and in honor of the occasion its approximately 500 pages of copy guidelines has had a. Its often used by news organizations, magazines, and web publications, but brands often use it to form the basis of their own style guides, too.
If you prefer a nonbranded term, then serial comma ascribes the. Imagine deleting the phrases that begin with including or such as from the. Newspapers and the like often have limited space for publication. Most of the time, you should not use a comma before because when it connects two clauses in a sentence. If the series includes internal commas that necessitate semicolons or uses a conjunction such as and, include the comma. The associated press stylebook says, do not use on before a date or day of the week when its absence would not lead to confusion, except at the beginning of a sentence. Capitalize president only as a formal title before names. You must include the full company name somewhere in the story. On monday well see the eiffel tower, and on tuesday well visit the louvre. When a title stands alone or is offset from a name by commas, it should be lowercase.
Multiple representations of expressions in problems are presented simultaneously, enabling students to visualize how algebraic, graphical, geometric, numeric and written forms of those expressions relate to one another. The associated press stylebook provides an az guide to issues such as capitalization, abbreviation, punctuation, spelling, numerals and many other questions of language usage. Commas and periods always go inside quotation marks. Despite the fact that not all style books agree on this issue, we recommend using a comma after the nexttolast item in a seriesthe serial or. If the items in a series have internal punctuation, or a lot of words, then use semicolons to separate the items and that includes before the and or or before the final items. According to ap, both abbreviations are always followed.
The lieutenant governor, gavin newsom, was serving in the. Others, including the associated press stylebook and the chicago manual of style, say that a comma should not be used. Tboz, chili and lefteye are the original members of tlc. Associated press style basics journalists resource.
Ap staffers may also reference an alphabetical list of all company names, with stock ticker abbreviations. Commas before and in a series grammar and punctuation. This ensures the story will be among the search results on major websites. Ap is a journalistic style, so it is focused on brevity, but it also needs to ensure accuracy, so it leaves the decision up to editors. For example, a list of three countries might be punctuated either as france, italy and spain without the serial comma or france, italy, and. In short, ap s stance is to omit the serial comma except when it prevents misreading, and chicagos stance is to always include itfor the same reason. I devote a chapter in my book the glamour of grammar to my preference for that final comma, and now believe that ap style should now include it. Dont use a comma before which when it introduces an indirect question. Its almost always optional to put a comma before and in a list. You set off information in a sentence when the modifier is nonessential, meaning if there is a specific enough noun that the info modifies, then you set off the phrase, clause, or word. How to use commas in associated press style pen and the pad. May 29, 20 the venerable style guide you know and love, the ap stylebook, is having a big birthday.
Use the ampersand when it is part of a companys formal name or. Welcome to ask the editor, a forum on writing, style and phrasing issues that go beyond the pages of the ap stylebook. Include the companys full name use the companys full name somewhere in the article, especially if the articles subject matter could affect the companys business. Note that while ap style uses abbreviations for months sept.
You usually put a comma before and when its connecting two independent clauses. Exactly why this particular quirk of comma usage stirs such passions is. The new ap stylebook will not end the oxford comma debate. Whether youre eating shoots and leaving or just a little confused as to if the comma is always placed within quotation. The ap style says that a comma is not needed between two clauses that have the same subject. The sentence above contains two independent clauses highlighted in green, so it. There are specific stylistic instructions for weights, measurements, parts of speech and usage. The ap stylebook has just a few guidelines for how and when to properly use the ampersand in your writing. Writers frequently wonder whether a comma should go before the conjunction and in a list of three or more items. Mar 15, 2017 the oxford or harvard or serial comma. There is, however, a rule that independent clauses joined with a coordinating conjunction must use a comma. A lot of people have strong feelings about putting a comma before and in a list. In some style guides, such as that of the associated press ap, the only time an oxford comma is used is when it is necessary in order to accurately understand the sentence. In this post, we will summarize all of the ap stylebook state abbreviations rules.87 207 1518 1458 543 1459 1449 1276 1506 507 1528 839 454 314 1236 980 1416 1145 728 76 68 816 877 1401 614 1482 562 195 593 244 1303 173 522 418 58